Open Access This article is licensed Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which allows use, release, customization, distribution and reproduction in any format, provided you grant appropriate recognition to the original author and source, providing a link to the Creative Commons license and indicating whether changes have been made. The images or other third-party material contained in this article are included in the article`s Creative Commons license, unless otherwise stated in a hardware credit. If the material is not included in the Creative Commons license of the article and your intention to use it is not authorized by law or if the authorized use exceeds, you must obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. A copy of this license is available in creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Paris Agreement was launched at the signing on April 22, 2016 (Earth Day) at a ceremony in New York.  After the agreement was ratified by several EU member states in October 2016, there were enough countries that had ratified the agreement to produce enough greenhouse gases in the world for the agreement to enter into force.  The agreement came into force on November 4, 2016.  On August 4, 2017, the Trump administration formally communicated to the United Nations that the United States intends to withdraw from the Paris Agreement as soon as it is legally entitled to do so.  The formal declaration of resignation could not be submitted until after the agreement for the United States came into force on November 4, 2019 for a three-year date.   On November 4, 2019, the U.S. government filed the withdrawal notice with the Secretary-General of the United Nations, custodian of the agreement, and formally withdrew from the Paris Agreement a year later, when the withdrawal came into effect.  After the November 2020 elections, President-elect Joe Biden promised to reinstate the United States in the Paris Agreement for his first day in office and renew the U.S. commitment to climate change mitigation.
  A dichotomous interpretation of CBDR-RC has led to an international agreement on the Convention and its Kyoto Protocol. Industrialised countries (Annex I) committed to absolute emission reduction or limit targets, while all other countries (excluding Appendix I) did not have such commitments. However, this rigid distinction does not reflect the dynamic diversification between developing countries since 1992, as evidenced by the diversity of contributions to global emissions and economic growth models (Deleuil, 2012). Dubash, 2009). This led Depledge and Yamin (2009, 443) to refer to UnFCCC Schedule I/non-Annex I as the dichotomy and “greatest weakness of the regime.” How each country is on track to meet its obligations under the Paris Agreement can be constantly monitored online (via the Climate Action Tracker  and the climate clock).